Geographical Information Science (GIScience)
Geographic(al) information science (GIScience) is the research or discipline that studies fundamental data structures and computational techniques to capture, represent, process, and analyze geographic information (Goodchild 1992). Though closely related to geographic information system(s) known as GIS, GIScience is more about the fundamental concepts, principles, theories, and data structures that underlie many GIS software tools. As a subarea of information science that is about geographic or spatial information, , GIScience consists of essential components such as cartography, geovisualization, geodesy, spatial statistics, GIS, remote sensing, and global positioning systems (GPS). Recent advances in cognitive and information sciences also contribute to GIScience.
The CHES research makes use of many GIScience concepts and methods (tools), and the most salient two of them are geographic information system(s) and remote sensing. However our connection to GIScience goes beyond use of GIS, GPS, and remote sensing, but also extends to include space-time analysis, 4-dimensional agent-based modeling, and extending traditional non-spatial methods to spatial data or space-time data analysis. In particular, we borrow and extend metrics from other disciplines to advance our understanding and representation of landscapes or landscape changes. Below is a list of articles that offer basic understanding of GIScience.
Duckham, M., M.F. Goodchild, and M. Worboys (2004). Foundations of Geographic Information Science. Taylor & Francis
Goodchild, M. (1992). Geographical information science. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 6 (1): 31ĘC45.